Alternate text tags allow users to interpret page content without seeing images. Images have alternate text that can be read by screen reader software.
Text captions are an important alternative to audio and allow the hearing impaired to use content. Video content includes captions.
Like captions, a text description can also communicate what a video or audio clip is about. This can be in the form of a paragraph around the video. Video or audio-only content is accompanied by a text transcript or description.
If a media player like Flash Player is needed to use content, there should be a link to where the software can be downloaded. Links that are provided to media players are required to view content.
Main headings (h1) come before smaller subheadings (h2, h3 and so on). Headings are presented in a logical order.
“Strong” and “emphasis” tags can specify more than just visual changes like “bold” and “italics” to web browsers. “b” and “i” tags are replaced with “strong” and “em.”
Empty links and headings make for sloppy code and can confuse users of screen reading software. There are no empty links or heading tags.
Presentation that relies solely on color is inaccessible to the visually impaired. Information should be conveyed using broad, easily-interpreted techniques. Presentation does not rely solely on color.
It is strongly recommended that audio does not play automatically. However, if audio plays, a keyboard user should be able to stop it. Automatically-played audio does not occur or can be stopped.
Keyboard access is crucial for visually-impaired users. The keyboard should be capable of meeting all functionality on the site. The keyboard can be used to navigate the site.
When proceeding through a website using the keyboard, keyboard focus should not get locked to any position. Focus should keep moving with each tap. Keyboard focus is never stuck on one particular page element.
If a user has limited time to do something, they should be warned before time expires. This can be in the form of a pop-up or other notification. Time limits provide notifications to the user.
Any page element that automatically moves or changes should be able to be stopped in a certain position. Automatically scrolling or blinking content can be stopped.
Flashing colors are generally considered to be bad practice as they are very disruptive, especially for users with epilepsy. No strobe effects or rapidly flashing colors occur on the site.
“Skip to content” functionality is often accessed with the Tab key and allows a user to skip to the main body of a page. Especially useful with screen reading software, it ensures the user does not have to move keyboard focus through the full length of every page. “Skip navigation” functionality allows keyboard users to quickly access content.
Page titles usually appear in the top of the browser window and communicate the main idea of a page. They should be of reasonable length, closer to a sentence or less rather than a paragraph of text. Page titles clearly and succinctly describe page content.
Buttons and links are “action items” the user can interact with, causing something to happen. The action that occurs should be predictable, clearly communicated, and never a surprise. Buttons and links are clearly and logically named.
Language code in the header of each page marks what language the code is written and meant to be read in. The language of each page is identified in code.
Sometimes, keyboard focus changes the appearance of a page element. For example, hovering a mouse over a link might change the link’s text color, or giving an element keyboard focus might make it larger. This change should not significantly affect the layout or readability of the page. Elements receiving focus do not change content in a substantial way.
If the user enters invalid information into a form control, they should be notified of the issue. For example, when filling out an email address form, an email address must be entered. If an invalid email address is entered, the user should know of the problem. Invalid form input is identified to the user.
Every form input should have a label to describe what type of information should be entered into it. Additionally, a legend can be used to group multiple form inputs. Forms have labels and legends that can be read by screen reader software.
The website passes W3C HTML validation with no major problems. There are no major validation errors.